The Science behind Ixtlan
The most recent scientific research alongside anecdotal reports of cognitive benefits from psilocybin micro-dosing, suggest the therapeutic potential in treating a range of psychiatric and neurological conditions.At Ixtlan Bioscience, we attempt to secure pioneering position in this exciting, promising field of novel therapeutic approach for brain pathologies, by partnering with eminent scientific institutions and conducting extensive
pre-clinical and clinical.
Psilocybin microdosing is the practice of using
sub-threshold doses (microdoses) of serotonergic drugs in an attempt to promote emotional balance, increase performance on problems-solving tasks and to treat anxiety and depression.
According to currently available data from preclinical and clinical trials, and advantage of microdosing is reflected in it’s safety, as microdosing therapeutical psychedelics does not cause side effects, changes in perception and impaired functioning.
It is hypothesized that psilocybin, potent 5-HT2A receptor agonist, has the potential to stimulate neurogenesis, neuroplasticity and reduce neuroinflammation. Additionally, 5-HT2A receptor is found in high concentrations in regions of the brain vulnerable to dementia such as hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. Taken together, this inevitably makes psilocybin interesting candidates for therapeutics in dementia and it is not surprising that the research in this field is moving fast-forward. Study in rats has shown that activation of 5-HT2A receptors stimulates cortical neurogenesis and promotes expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) (Vaidya et al., 1997). In yet another study in rats, 5-HT2A -R activation with micro-doses of psilocybin enhances both prospective and retrospective learning in dose dependent manner (Buchborn et al., 2014; Cini et al., 2019).
In line with this observation were the results performed in cultured rat neurons, psilocybin-based activation 5-HT2A receptors stimulates dendritic spine proliferation and growth (Jones et al., 2009; Yoshida et al., 2011). Importantly for Ixtlan’s narrative and first among brain pathologies targets – Alzheimer’s disease, study of Buchborn and colleagues in older rodents showed that learning was enhanced by combination of psilocybin administration and enriched environment exposure (Buchborn et al., 2014).
Gamma frequency oscillations (30–100 Hz) in humans are important indicator of healthy brain and proper communication channels between brain regions, particularly those involved in attention and memory (Jensen et al., 2007; Verret et al., 2012).
Disruption of these networks, and therefore of EEG recorded gamma oscillations can occur decades before the onset of significant symptoms in AD, possibly linked to dysfunctional inhibitory interneurons network` (Weber and Andrade, 2010; Palop and Mucke, 2016).
Recent study found that gamma frequency response is in Alzheimer patients, suggesting that the increase in gamma power seen in some studies with AD patients may the greater use of brain resources (Basar et al., 2016). 5-HT2A agonists such as psilocybin enhance the power of gamma-frequency, suggesting a role for the 5HT2A-R both in mediating long-range projections and reducing focal Alzheimer’s pathology (Puig et al., 2010; Athilingam
et al., 2017).
Finally, all known risk factors for AD are associated with increased neuroinflammation, suggesting that attenuating inflammatory processes could be a target for preventing and relieving AD symptoms (Jones and Kounatidis, 2017). Psilocybin have been shown to have potent anti-inflammatory properties and given it’s affinity for the 5-HT2A, may represent
a unique trigger of anti-inflammatory cascade (Flanagan and Nichols, 2018) in addition to it’s neuroprotective capacity.